Enjoy it at Phrack!
It’s finally out. It feels a bit old and it is indeed a bit old but still a good paper (or at least I tried to make it that way). The supplied code is for an older version of that rootkit. For example it still has dependencies on importing task, proc and other kernel private structures. The updated version solves all required offsets so it supports easily new and old OS X versions. It will come out with the book together with other features that were added, and new ones I am poking around.
The book? Life has been chaotic, doesn’t help my brain is like electricity, always attraced by the least resistance path and by new things. I got new motivation and hopefully a team soon enough so I can dedicate myself to write it.
I can tell you that nemo wrote a treaty on DTrace ;-). A bit more patience on this, I think it will be worth the wait.
Meanwhile, enjoy that long article, hopefully it is interesting enough :-).
After surviving the five shots at SyScan’s WhiskeyCon I am finally back home and you get a chance to see the slides and code for the TrustedBSD module I presented.
The goal of REX vs The Romans is to work as detection and prevention tool of Hacking Team’s OS X malware. The TrustedBSD hook allows to detect if the system is already infected, and the Kauth listener to warn about any future infection.
The code has a strong assumption, which is that the malware binaries are installed into /Users/username/Library/Preferences. This has been true for all past known samples found in the wild. I do have better work than this but it is embedded in a commercial product so I can’t disclose its code.
The kernel extension will generate a user alert when something wrong is detected, either on installation or already infected system. A message starting with [WARNING] will also be printed to the system log. The following screenshot demonstrates the execution and infection from the dropper in a Lion 10.7.5 system.
You are encouraged to improve this code. Unfortunately I can’t do much more because of the commercial product conflict. If you do so please tell me about it, I might be able to help with some hints and/or fixes.
I am going to try to get a personal kernel extension certificate so I can distribute a ready to use binary version of this extension. That would be the most helpful case for the common users out there. Let’s see if Apple allows me to do so.
The slides are available here. The code is available at Github.
If you have any issues or questions feel free to mail me or post a comment.
SyScan 2014 was awesome, thanks to everyone who attended and made it possible.
P.S.: The MPRESS dumper will hopefully be released when I do the full presentation on Hacking Team’s OS X malware this year.
Rex the Wonder Dog (here and here) is a proof of concept that uses TrustedBSD framework to install kernel level backdoors. Volatility is able to detect these malicious modules with a plugin created by Andrew Case. The plugin works by looking up the TrustedBSD structures and dumping information about the loaded modules.
At SyScan360 I presented a “new” trick to bypass this plugin by creating a shadow structure and leaving the legit one untouched. Volatility looks up the original structure and is unable to detect the malicious modules. The problem of this approach is that modifies kernel code (the references to the structure) so it will raise a flag when verifying the integrity of the running kernel code.
The real Rex is a very cool dog but his only interest in life is food. Fortunately for him the virtual Rex is smarter and eager to learn so let’s teach him something new. This trick exploits a failure in the plugin assumptions to not replicate the exact TrustedBSD plugins call process. It is once again a good example of how assumptions can be problematic, both to the person creating the plugin and its users. The latter are most of the time blind to the underlying assumptions and just want to use the tools. Off-the-shelf tools always have these kind of problems and the more popular they are the more blindly used and trusted. This is not a specific critic to the Volatility project (which I think it’s a great project by the way!) but more directed towards Information Security in general, where this is a frequent problem. I digress, let’s move to the interesting part!
TrustedBSD is one of my favourite features in OS X kernel. It allows to easily extend OS X security or install backdoors into the kernel without modifying kernel code. We just have to load a kernel module configured with the hooks we are interested in listening at. TrustedBSD will do all the dirty work for us and call our functions, where we can control access to resources or do malicious stuff.
Our lovely gdb has been declared dead with Xcode 5 release. The new king in town is lldb, and that also applies to kernel debugging. Change is good, even if we Humans don’t like it, but… there’s still no gdbinit for lldb and I just love it. Even more important (for kernel debugging), lldb still has no support (afaik) for VMware gdb stub. This means it’s not possible to do kernel debugging in Mavericks VMs other than KDP. I like the gdb stub a lot; ctrl+c and bang we got kernel control.
I needed to do some research with Mavericks so I decided to port the kgmacros script to Mavericks. It was easier than I expected, just some fixes to structures that changed. Most functions are working ok, and there are a few private helper commands I added last yet while I doing some research. Mostly improvements related to physical memory functions. The most important commands, at least for me, are fully working.
The script is available at Github repo. The kgmacros file is for Mountain Lion, and kgmacros_mavericks for Mavericks.
One small tip if you are doing two real machines debugging with lldb and thunderbolt. You will need to set the boot args parameter “kdp_match_name=en4″ if you are using a thunderbolt to ethernet adapter in the target machine. KDP expects by default the network interface in en0 and the thunderbolt adapter is set as en4. Other than that everything works. It just needs the gdbinit like output and commands. Deroko started a version here. Go help him, I don’t want to learn Python (again) ;-).
There is no such thing as malware in OS X but last week another sample was spotted and made the “news”. I am talking about CoinThief, a malware designed to hijack Bitcoin accounts and steal everything (I must confess I laughed a bit; I think Bitcoin is just a bullshit pyramid scheme but I digress…).
There are a few samples out there, in different stages of evolution, so this is probably not a very recent operation. Nicholas Ptacek from SecureMac broke the story and did an initial analysis. Check his link here and also ThreatPost for some details about the different infected applications and how it started.
This post will target the initial stage of the malware packed with StealthBit application and a bit into the installed malware browser extensions.
First step is to load the main binary into IDA or Hopper (I still use IDA mostly out of lazyness and habit). We are presented with this nice picture (not all methods shown) of very weird class and method names.
Oh this one has been into my head for so long that I finally decided to try and create the code for it. So let’s go!
What’s the background story?
In August *2011* I reported to Apple a security issue with iTunes. What happens is that iTunes plugins are loaded into iTunes process space so they have full control of iTunes. Evil plugins can do all kinds of things such as stealing iTunes passwords and credit card information, or patching some annoying features as I did with Disable m3u plugin.
This is part of Apple’s response:
“After examining your report, we feel that this is an area for security hardening that we will consider for future updates.“.
Well, almost three years later and a few iTunes revisions nothing was done regarding this. The plugin folder is writable by current logged in user so a trojan dropper can easily load a malicious plugin. Or it can be used as communication channel for a RAT (Hacking Team, are you reading this?). And so on…
AppleDoesntGiveAFuckAboutSecurity is a quick PoC that installs a breakpoint on SSLWrite function and dumps the clear text buffer that is passed to it before being sent over SSL/TLS secur channel (veryyyy old trick, nothing new). A mini-debugger (exception handler) is installed to handle the breakpoint and dump the information. Of course this could have been done with function hooking but this code is more fun, even if it’s a very quick hack with hardcoded addresses. It is set to be used with latest iTunes available in Mavericks 10.9.1. If you want to play with other versions, just run iTunes under gdb and breakpoint on *SSLWrite. Give a look at the code, it’s pretty small and easy to understand.