Tag Archives: backdoor

The Italian morons are back! What are they up to this time?

Nothing 🙂

HackingTeam was deeply hacked in July 2015 and most of their data was spilled into public hands, including source code for all their sofware and also some 0day exploits. This was an epic hack that shown us their crap internal security but more important than that, their was of doing things and internal and external discussions, since using PGP was too much of an annoyance for these guys (Human biases are a royal pain in the ass, I know!). You can consult the email archives on this Wikileaks online and searchable archive. I had some love on those emails although they never sent that promised Playboy subscription (not interested anymore guys, they gave up on nudes!). For an epic presentation about their OS X RCS malware give a look at these slides.

Last Friday a new OS X RCS sample was sent to me (big thanks to @claud_xiao from Palo Alto Networks for the original discovery, and as usual to @noarfromspace for forwarding it to me). My expectations weren’t big since all the public samples were rather old and know we had their source code so if it were an old sample it was totally uninteresting to analyse. But contrary to my expectations there are some interesting details on this sample. So let’s start once more our reverse engineering journey…
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London and Asia EFI monsters tour!

Finally back home from China and Japan tour, so it’s time to finally release the updated slides about EFI Monsters. After Secuinside I updated them a bit, fixing stuff I wasn’t happy with and adding some new content.

The updated version was first presented at 44CON London. I had serious reservations about going to the UK (not even in transit!) but Steve Lord and Adrian charm convinced me to give it a try. 44CON was great and it’s definitely a must attend European conference. It has the perfect size to meet people and share ideas. I prefer single track conferences, dual track is the max I’m interested in. More than that it’s just too big, too messy, too many choices to be made regarding what to see.

A big thanks to everyone at 44CON who made it possible!

Next was SyScan360 in Beijing. It was the fourth time it happened, and my third time in a row. I do like very much to go there because even with language barriers you can feel what’s happening there. Bought a bunch of (cheap) hardware gear made by 360 Unicorn team. Their “usb condom” is super cheap and super small. Also bought a network tap and a USB to serial (don’t really needed it but it was damn cheap). The SyScan360 badge as usual was super fun, this time with a micro Arduino, Bluetooth and LED modules. Conference went pretty smooth and had lots of fun. They had a gigantic LED panel where slides were displayed at. That was some gigantic TV they had there 🙂

Big thanks to everyone involved in SyScan360 2015.

Last stop, was CODE BLUE happening in my current favorite city outside Portugal, aka Tokyo. Third time happening, my second in a row. Organization is top notch, everything goes smoothly. Congrats to Kana, El Kentaro, Tessy, and everyone else involved.
This year it had two tracks, and a lot more attendees. It’s definitely a conference to put on your calendar. The audience is super interested in learning. Japan is lagging behind in terms of security so they are keen to finally catch up.

Some people approached me and shown some interested about (U)EFI security. This is great, that was the goal of this presentation, to show people (U)EFI research isn’t that hard and that it is really important its issues start to be fixed. We need to start building trustable foundations and not try to solve everything in software on top of platforms we can’t really trust.

Last conference for the year is No cON Name happening in Barcelona next December.

For next year I already got something that hopefully I’ll be able to present at SyScan360 Singapore. Their CFP is open and you should definitely think about submitting.

There were minor changes between 44CON and SyScan360/Code Blue slides. The latter included more references than 44CON version and minor fixes.

Have fun,

44Con 2015 – Efi Monsters.pdf
SyScan360 2015 – Efi Monsters.pdf
CodeBlue 2015 – Efi Monsters.pdf

How to fix rootpipe in Mavericks and call Apple’s bullshit bluff about rootpipe fixes

The rootpipe vulnerability was finally fully disclosed last week after a couple of months of expectation since the first announcement. It was disclosed as a hidden backdoor but it’s really more something related to access control and crap design than a backdoor. Although keep in mind that good backdoors should be hard to distinguish from simple errors. In this case there are a lot of services using this feature so it’s hardly a hidden backdoor that just sits there waiting for some evil purpose. Apple doesn’t have a stellar security record so the simple explanation has a good chance to prevail over the backdoor story.

Anyway that’s not what really matter for this post. The most important issue is that a fix was made available only for Yosemite 10.10.3. Every other OS X version is left vulnerable. While this is a local privilege escalation vulnerability there are many scenarios where it can be used (you don’t audit every single installer and software that runs on your Mac, do you?). It is extremely reliable and can be used in different ways other than just creating a suid binary.
The vulnerability author wrote the following regarding this issue:
“Apple indicated that this issue required a substantial amount of changes on their side, and that they will not back port the fix to 10.9.x and older.”

So essentially Apple refuses to patch this in all versions except the latest one because it’s apparently too much work. There is no official statement from Apple regarding the EOL (End of Life) status about all previous OS X versions so this course of action is quite strange. Even stranger when Apple backports some security patches to those older versions so they are implicitly not yet dead versions.

In this situation what can we do?
We can try to verify what is the real impact of Apple’s fix and call their bluff if we can prove that we are able to produce a fix without significant changes to the operating system. Challenge accepted!
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BadXNU, a rotten apple! – CodeBlue 2014, SyScan 2015 slides and source code

The last SyScan is almost here so it’s time to get again into a plane and travel to Singapore.
This means that the slides and source code can finally be released. Below you can find the archive with both presentations slides (they are slightly different, SyScan fixes/upgrades a few things) and full source code for both rootkit/kext loaders.

I hope you enjoy them; they are quite fun techniques, in particular the second one which now I sort of regret to disclose because it’s so cool.
I’ve also written a book chapter about both techniques (53 pages before editing) which add a few more tricks. I’m working on the book so hopefully it will finally come out this year.

The archive password will be released on the day of my presentation (27th March) so keep an eye on Twitter and SyScan website. If you crack it before that keep its contents private ;-).

If you are at SyScan feel free to have a chat. I’m there to meet new people and also learn.

Hope you enjoy,

Dropbox Mirror:

Update: The archive password is “syscan_rules_blackhat_sucks!”.
The final version presented at SyScan (really minor changes) can be download here.
The full source code is available at GitHub, diagnostic_service and diagnostic_service2.

Analysis of CoinThief/A “dropper”

There is no such thing as malware in OS X but last week another sample was spotted and made the “news”. I am talking about CoinThief, a malware designed to hijack Bitcoin accounts and steal everything (I must confess I laughed a bit; I think Bitcoin is just a bullshit pyramid scheme but I digress…).

There are a few samples out there, in different stages of evolution, so this is probably not a very recent operation. Nicholas Ptacek from SecureMac broke the story and did an initial analysis. Check his link here and also ThreatPost for some details about the different infected applications and how it started.
This post will target the initial stage of the malware packed with StealthBit application and a bit into the installed malware browser extensions.

First step is to load the main binary into IDA or Hopper (I still use IDA mostly out of lazyness and habit). We are presented with this nice picture (not all methods shown) of very weird class and method names.

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AppleDoesntGiveAFuckAboutSecurity iTunes Evil Plugin Proof of Concept

Oh this one has been into my head for so long that I finally decided to try and create the code for it. So let’s go!

What’s the background story?
In August *2011* I reported to Apple a security issue with iTunes. What happens is that iTunes plugins are loaded into iTunes process space so they have full control of iTunes. Evil plugins can do all kinds of things such as stealing iTunes passwords and credit card information, or patching some annoying features as I did with Disable m3u plugin.
This is part of Apple’s response:
After examining your report, we feel that this is an area for security hardening that we will consider for future updates.“.

Well, almost three years later and a few iTunes revisions nothing was done regarding this. The plugin folder is writable by current logged in user so a trojan dropper can easily load a malicious plugin. Or it can be used as communication channel for a RAT (Hacking Team, are you reading this?). And so on…

AppleDoesntGiveAFuckAboutSecurity is a quick PoC that installs a breakpoint on SSLWrite function and dumps the clear text buffer that is passed to it before being sent over SSL/TLS secur channel (veryyyy old trick, nothing new). A mini-debugger (exception handler) is installed to handle the breakpoint and dump the information. Of course this could have been done with function hooking but this code is more fun, even if it’s a very quick hack with hardcoded addresses. It is set to be used with latest iTunes available in Mavericks 10.9.1. If you want to play with other versions, just run iTunes under gdb and breakpoint on *SSLWrite. Give a look at the code, it’s pretty small and easy to understand.
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